P`s Blog


Introduction to contract tests

July 15, 2020 • ☕️ 3 min read


It became evident to the Frontend team that Swagger documentation alone will not suffice due to the following:

  • Properties from the api response get added / removed / updated
  • There is no way to inform the stakeholders (FE in our case) about the above change

Due to these reasons, we want to test an integration point by checking each application (BE or FE) in isolation to ensure the messages it sends or receives conform to a shared understanding that is documented in a “contract”.

In simple terms, we want to test the integration point with our BE API client to ensure it sends HTTP response or receives HTTP requests from our web or mobile front-end conforms to a shared understanding that is documented in a “contract”.


  • Consumer —> The one who consumes the information
  • Provider —> The one who provids the information

It’s interesting to note that, contract tests enable testing of applications from either ways.

Example: The backend can be contract tested with a mock frontend and viceversa. Both the backend and frontend can interchange and act as the consumer or the provider.

The contract is generated during the execution of the automated tests. The consumer generates contract files during the execution of its isolated tests. The provider generates verification results during the execution of its isolated tests. These artifacts need to be shared between projects and people.


We will use Pact as the contract test framework.


  • Enable FE teams to (sometimes) work ahead while the BE API is still being developed
  • The consumer and provider are both under active development
  • Contract tests execute faster than the integration tests and will tell which versions of our applications can be deployed safely together
  • We can find out before we deploy whether or not our applications will work together, i.e. this version of FE against a given version of BE; and there is no need to wait for slow e2e tests

Contract vs Integration tests

I first heard the term contract testing only last month mainly when we were trying to figure out how to have better API tests and that the BE changes become more visible to us.

Integration tests or end to end tests (offcourse these two are not same) require the application to be setup, or run beforehand to enable the tests themselves to run. This is the biggest key difference between integration and contract tests.

For example: Imagine you are planning to buy / rent a house. First you will see the house itself. If it interests you then you will sign the contract. The contract will then detail what is agreed between you and the other person selling / renting the place. This contract will then serve as the basis. If anything needs to change, then you need to update the contract itself.

Replace the house with the application. You are the consumer, the owner of the house is the provider.

First you will see the house itself.

You will build the application, run unit tests, and test the application locally.

If it interests you then you will sign the contract.

The contract tests are run with what is agreed between the consumer and the provider.

You didn’t have to move into the house to sign the contract. But the contract was the first agreement before moving into the house.

It’s the same with deploying the application itself to production or staging environment. The consumer contract tests can be tested against a mock provider.

Whereas for the integration tests to be run, the application first needs to be deployed.

Let me know what your thoughts are.